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Drivers of human dd management competences development in Brazilian multinational subsidiaries: This article aims to verify the factors associated with the development of human resource management HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals.

These competences are essential in that they allow foreign units to adopt HRM practices that are consistent with the countries or markets in which they operate. A multilevel research was conducted, involving headquarters and subsidiaries of major Brazilian companies; the empirical analysis employed hierarchical linear modelling. Despite the recurrent debate on global standardisation versus local adaptation, it was identified that the integration of international HRM policies addressing simultaneously global guidelines and local response may stimulate competences development.

In addition, interaction in external networks in the host country may enhance the development of HRM administgao in the subsidiaries. However, specific cultural factors of the company may inhibit development activity in units abroad. Sin embargo, algunos factores culturales de la empresa pueden inhibir el desarrollo de esas competencias en sus subsidiarias en el extranjero.

The present study aims to hujanos the factors that are associated with the development of human resource management HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals BrMNs.

This is mainly explained by the fact that upon developing competences abroad, companies not only adapt to local conditions, which is the basic requirement for successful competition in foreign countries, but may also obtain competences that are impossible to develop in one’s native country. However, studies based on the internationalisation models of companies from developed countries focus primarily on multinationals’ strategies and on the characteristics of the host-country.

At most, this debate considered multinationals’ need for adaptation as a result of institutional distance.

In the specific case of HRM practices, this approach is rather widely employed; studies investigate the influence of the host country’s institutional environment on the way in which these practices are configured in subsidiaries e. Exceptions include the studies of Aycan et al. Even so, the weight of the institutional dimensions of the country of origin has been relegated, at a certain extent, to the background in the international business literature. In general, this is explained by the internationalisation model employed by companies from developed nations, which is generally used in countries with small institutional distance.

When the distance is greater, this explanation is associated with the fact that the country of origin often features institutional conditions that are stronger than those of the host country, as in the classic case of North-South internationalisation or the centre-periphery dynamic. Therefore, the present article seeks to verify how the institutional conditions of the country of origin influence the development of HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of emerging multinational companies, specifically Brazilian companies.

This approach recognises the fact that the environment in the country of origin of emerging multinationals highly influence the way they develop and internationalise Fleury, M.

However, this article does not solely focus on the impact of cultural dimensions humanoss subsidiaries. In fact, other elements e. For this reason, our humajos approach adopts, as a starting point, the early work of Hendrywhose model captures the organic development of HRM throughout the internationalisation endeavour, from the initial steps of internationalisation to mature operations abroad.

This approach sheds light on multiple factors ercursos may affect HRM configurations through this process.

As most BrMNs are still sketching how human resources should be managed in their global operations Muritiba, ; Muritiba et al. In fact, in mature subsidiaries, networks may exert even more influence on HRM practices than corporate policies Kynighou, We therefore propose a multilevel model that verifies, simultaneously, the influence of external factors in the country of origin cultural dimensions and in the host country external networks bumanos measures the impact of the internal strategic guidelines of MNCs IHRM strategic policies.


Therefore, the present study specifically investigates the following points: What is the impact of cultural factors of the country of origin on the competences development in foreign subsidiaries of BrMNs? What is the impact of business networks in the host country on the competences development in foreign subsidiaries of BrMNs? Thus, one contribution of this article is that it adopts an approach that combines different drivers at the company level e.

Toward this end, a multilevel survey has been conducted involving major BrMNs. This article also contributes to the debate regarding mechanisms related to the development of HRM competences in emerging MNCs. In fact, most studies on competences development emphasise MNCs from developed countries. In BrMNs, these competences remain in their infancy and require gradual development Muritiba et al.

The present study addresses this gap in the literature. The article is structured as follows. First, the theoretical framework outlines the stages of HRM evolution, from the context of domestic business to internationalisation. These stages emphasize the relevance of the aspects investigated in the multilevel research within the context of BrMNs: Next, the hypotheses tested in the survey are presented based on the theoretical framework. Finally, the adopted multilevel methodology is described, and the results are discussed.

The literature on HRM in multinationals has centred on certain topics. This second aspect, which includes the debate on centralised control versus subsidiary autonomy Ferner et al. These studies generally do not explore the evolutionary process of companies that internationalise or determine how their HR strategies and policies are configured from a longitudinal perspective. However, the model proposed by Hendry presents the stages of a company’s internationalisation process and links specific characteristics to these stages, examining the evolution of HRM in the internationalising company.

The focus is gradualist and does not reflect what occurs in born-global companies.

Because the author characterises internationalisation from its initial stages and examines its implications for HRM, this focus is adequate for analysing companies in emerging countries adimnistrao international expansion has been relatively recent. It is thus used as a starting point for the theoretical framework employed in the present study. Hendry’s model describes the reconfigurations that take place in HRM as the firm advances from its domestic environment to international operations.

The author’s model comprises two main stages: Initial steps towards internationalisation; and HRM through aministrao internationalisation process and HRM in the established international firm. The first stage involves the beginning of internationalisation. This transition is characterised by an emphasis on competitiveness in the domestic market, the construction of internal and international networks for the expanding organisation and the initiation and maintenance of international commitments.

During this stage, HRM competences are consolidated for operation in the original environment; they are strongly influenced by the management models and culture of the headquarters which, in turn, are embedded in the country of origin institutional and cultural environment. Nevertheless, as global expansion progresses, HRM competences are gradually moulded for international expansion, according to the establishment of units abroad.

In the second stage, HRM practices that are appropriate for use by mature international organisations tend to take place.

This stage involves developing inter-cultural competences and consolidating IHRM policies and practices. The formation of new competences plays a relevant role during this process.

Significado de “resources” no dicionário inglês

These competences are related to practices of attracting, compensating and developing people within the organisation Peck, ; Fleury, M. Foreign subsidiaries are exposed to the local conditions of the environments in which they operate, and as a function of exposure to international competition, a company will tend to develop new HRM competences. Organisational competences are disseminated among the units or may form within the subsidiaries and get transferred in several directions, i.

Thus, the competitive advantage and organisational competences of MNCs do not exist exclusively at the headquarters; rather, they also depend on the competences formed in the subsidiaries. From the HRM perspective, the development of competences in the subsidiaries themselves is relevant, such that each unit may adapt itself to the conditions of the market in which it operates and may cease to depend exclusively on solutions intended for the domestic market or generated at the headquarters.

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As internationalisation advances, implications for and developments within HRM arise. Above all, IHRM policies must be generated that are aligned with international business strategies. Such policies may help to guide and align HR selection, development, compensation, etc. Given the relevance of HRM competences in the subsidiaries, it is necessary to examine factors that may influence the development of these competences. As aforementioned, these factors are interwoven with different stages of the internationalisation process Hendry, Three main factors are discussed below: This factor influences the evolution of the company’s HRM from the national context to its international operations Hendry, ; Aycan et al.


However, certain cultural characteristics may promote organisational “rigidities” that impede the ability to respond to the environment and reconfigure existing capabilities Leonard-Barton, For Brazilian companies, which are the focus of this research, the literature discusses how traces of a “Brazilian management style” are often visible.

This management model may thus have implications for the HRM competences exhibited by companies that begin international competition. With regard to internationalisation, two dimensions of “Brazilian management” are particularly relevant: They may thus inhibit the development of competences abroad.

The present study focuses on these dimensions due to their implications for subsidiary operations. These dimensions received the highest scores in the studies by Hofstede. They are frequently mentioned in the literature on Brazilian management and have a more pronounced effect on the management of Brazilian subsidiaries abroad Silva, In cultures with significant power distance, companies are less receptive to knowledge from subsidiaries, and there tends to be greater control over the movement of knowledge among the adjinistrao of MNCs Bhagat et al.

In terms of HRM, these cultural characteristics may stimulate snel, of guidelines and competences from headquarters and lessen autonomy, making it more difficult for foreign units to develop solutions that are appropriate adinistrao their local environment.

In other words, the higher the presence of such cultural traits, the lower is the development of HRM competences in units abroad. The IHRM literature has systematically debated the question of centralised control versus subsidiary autonomy Ferner et al. This model does not assume centralisation or decentralisation; rather, it presupposes integrated activities. To be effective, an organisation must have attributes that can be seen as opposing, paradoxical, or even contradictory.

This is recurss main challenge imposed by the transnational solution which requires continuously balancing local response and global standardisation.

RESOURCES – Definição e sinônimos de resources no dicionário inglês

Therefore, with regard to HRM, international policies should manage such duality, integrating global alignment to subsidiaries’ autonomy. However, snll all of the organisation’s activities must be integrated. Rather, centralised, decentralised and shared activities should exist.

In this scenario, shared decisions become the main strategic decisions for the subsidiary. This section explores the use of this form of integration and examines when to centralise, decentralise or share decisions. However, truly autonomous subsidiaries do not operate in an integrated manner and receive snelll knowledge and fewer competences from their headquarters and other subsidiaries.

Thus, a corporation does not always look favourably upon a high degree of subsidiary autonomy. When autonomy is not associated with the core MNC competences, it may even harm the subsidiary itself Moore, A lack of autonomy, however, is also harmful. This control may be bureaucratic and centralising, minimising the admunistrao for a subsidiary to develop global competences.

Importantly, autonomy must be aligned with the headquarters’ strategic decisions for MNCs in favour of a non-centralised but integrated management structure. In this scenario, the headquarters determines the strategic guidelines, and the subsidiary, working within the general guidelines, has the autonomy to adapt snfll practices to the country in adminnistrao it is installed. This approach also promotes less dependence on the competences of headquarters, favours subsidiary autonomy without encouraging a lack of attention to global policies and stimulates competence sharing among the units.

Attention to IHRM guidelines integration appears to help firms to develop competences at the subsidiary level. In other words, the higher the level of integration, the more intense is the development of competences in foreign subsidiaries.